Part 10 out of 11
and the remorseless cruelties of the Turks, the Greeks struggled
bravely on, and during the year 1823 the results of the contest
were generally in their favor. They often proved themselves worthy
sons of those who fell
"In bleak Thermopyl�'s strait,"
or on the plains of Marathon. Their patriotic determination to be
free, or die in the attempt, is happily reflected in the following
lines by the poet CAMPBELL, whose heart beat in sympathy with their
efforts for liberty.
Song of the Greeks.
Again to the battle, Achaians!
Our hearts bid the tyrants defiance!
Our land--the first garden of Liberty's tree--
It hath been, and shall yet be, the land of the free;
For the Cross of our faith is replanted,
The pale, dying crescent is daunted,
And we march that the footprints of Mahomet's slaves
May be washed out in blood from our forefathers' graves.
Their spirits are hovering o'er us,
And the sword shall to glory restore us.
Ah! what though no succor advances,
Nor Christendom's chivalrous lances
Are stretched in our aid? Be the combat our own!
And we'll perish or conquer more proudly alone!
For we've sworn by our country's assaulters,
By the virgins they've dragged from our altars,
By our massacred patriots, our children in chains,
By our heroes of old, and their blood in our veins,
That, living, we shall be victorious,
Or that, dying, our deaths shall be glorious!
A breath of submission we breathe not:
The sword that we've drawn we will sheathe not;
Its scabbard is left where our martyrs are laid,
And the vengeance of ages has whetted its blade.
Earth may hide, waves ingulf, fire consume us;
But they shall not to slavery doom us.
If they rule, it shall be o'er our ashes and graves:
But we've smote them already with fire on the waves,
And new triumphs on land are before us--
To the charge!--Heaven's banner is o'er us.
This day shall ye blush for its story,
Or brighten your lives with its glory.
Our women--oh say, shall they shriek in despair,
Or embrace us from conquest, with wreaths in their hair?
Accursed may his memory blacken,
If a coward there be who would slacken
Till we've trampled the turban, and shown ourselves worth
Being sprung from, and named for, the godlike of earth.
Strike home! and the world shall revere us
As heroes descended from heroes.
Old Greece lightens up with emotion!
Her inlands, her isles of the ocean,
Fanes rebuilt, and fair towns, shall with jubilee ring,
And the Nine shall new hallow their Helicon's spring.
Our hearths shall be kindled in gladness,
That were cold and extinguished in sadness;
While our maidens shall dance, with their white waving arms,
Singing joy to the brave that delivered their charms,
When the blood of yon Mussulman cravens
Shall have crimsoned the beaks of our ravens!
AMERICAN SYMPATHY WITH GREECE.
The progress of events in 1822 and 1823 made friends for the
Greeks wherever free principles were cherished; and from England
and America large contributions of money, clothing, and provisions,
were forwarded to relieve the sufferings inflicted by the wanton
cruelties of the Turks. It was the United States, however, as
the first American Minister to Greece, MR. TUCKERMAN, says, that
first responded, "in the words of President Monroe, Webster,
Clay, Everett, Dwight, and hosts of other lights," to the appeal
of the Greek senate at Kalam�ta, made in 1821. When Congress
assembled in December, 1823, President Monroe made the revolution
in Greece the subject of a paragraph in his annual message, in
which he expressed the hope of success to the Greeks and disaster
to the Turks; and Mr. Webster subsequently introduced a resolution
in the House of Representatives providing for the appointment
of an agent or commissioner to Greece. These were the first
official expressions favorable to the struggling country uttered
by any government; and in speaking to his resolution in January,
1824, Mr. Webster began his remarks as follows:
"An occasion which calls the attention to a spot so distinguished,
so connected with interesting recollections, as Greece, may
naturally create something of warmth and enthusiasm. In a grave
political discussion, however, it is necessary that those feelings
should be chastened. I shall endeavor properly to repress them,
although it is impossible that they should be altogether
extinguished. We must, indeed, fly beyond the civilized world;
we must pass the dominion of law and the boundaries of knowledge;
we must, more especially, withdraw ourselves from this place,
and the scenes and objects which here surround us, if we would
separate ourselves entirely from the influence of all those
memorials of herself which ancient Greece has transmitted for
the admiration and the benefit of mankind. This free form of
government, this popular assembly--the common council for the
common good--where have we contemplated its earliest models?
This practice of free debate and public discussion, the contest
of mind with mind, and that popular eloquence which, if it were
now here, on a subject like this, would move the stones of the
Capitol--whose was the language in which all these were first
exhibited? Even the edifice in which we assemble, these
proportioned columns, this ornamented architecture, all remind
us that Greece has existed, and that we, like the rest of mankind,
are greatly her debtors.
"But I have not introduced this motion in the vain hope of
discharging anything of this accumulated debt of centuries. I
have not acted upon the expectation that we who have inherited
this obligation from our ancestors should now attempt to pay it
to those who may seem to have inherited from their ancestors a
right to receive payment. My object is nearer and more immediate.
I wish to take occasion of the struggle of an interesting and
gallant people in the cause of liberty and Christianity, to draw
the attention of the House to the circumstances which have
accompanied that struggle, and to the principles which appear
to have governed the conduct of the great states of Europe in
regard to it, and to the effects and consequences of these
principles upon the independence of nations, and especially upon
the institutions of free governments. What I have to say of Greece,
therefore, concerns the modern, not the ancient--the living,
and not the dead. It regards her, not as she exists in history,
triumphant over time, and tyranny, and ignorance, but as she
now is, contending against fearful odds for being, and for the
common privileges of human nature."
In an argument of some length Mr. Webster forcibly condemns the
then existing policy of the European Powers, who, holding that
all changes in legislation and administration "ought to proceed
from kings alone," were therefore "wholly inexorable to the
sufferings of the Greeks, and entirely hostile to their success."
He demands that the protest of this government shall be made
against this policy, both as it is laid down in principle and
as it is applied in practice; and he closes his address with
the following references to the determination of the Greeks and
the sympathy their struggle should receive:
"Constantinople and the northern provinces have sent forth
thousands of troops; they have been defeated. Tripoli, and Algiers,
and Egypt have contributed their marine contingents; they have
not kept the ocean. Hordes of Tartars have crossed the Bosphorus;
they have died where the Persians died. The powerful monarchies
in the neighborhood have denounced the Greek cause, and admonished
the Greeks to abandon it and submit to their fate. They have
answered that, although two hundred thousand of their countrymen
have offered up their lives, there yet remain lives to offer;
and that it is the determination of all--'yes, of ALL'--to persevere
until they shall have established their liberty, or until the
power of their oppressors shall have relieved them from the burden
of existence. It may now be asked, perhaps, whether the expression
of our own sympathy, and that of the country, may do them good?
I hope it may. It may give them courage and spirit; it may assure
them of public regard, teach them that they are not wholly
forgotten by the civilized world, and inspire them with constancy
in the pursuit of their great end. At any rate, it appears to
me that the measure which I have proposed is due to our own
character, and called for by our own duty. When we have discharged
that duty we may leave the rest to the disposition of Providence.
I am not of those who would, in the hour of utmost peril, withhold
such encouragement as might be properly and lawfully given, and,
when the crisis should be past, overwhelm the rescued sufferer
with kindness and caresses. The Greeks address the civilized
world with a pathos not easy to be resisted. They invoke our
favor by more moving considerations than can well belong to the
condition of any other people. They stretch out their arms to
the Christian communities of the earth, beseeching them, by a
generous recollection of their ancestors, by the consideration
of their desolated and ruined cities and villages, by their wives
and children sold into an accursed slavery, by their blood, which
they seem willing to pour out like water, by the common faith
and in the name which unites all Christians, that they would
extend to them at least some token of compassionate regard."
THE SORTIE AT MISSOLONGHI.
One of the noted exploits of the Greeks in 1823, and one that has
been commemorated in many ways, occurred at Missolon'ghi, the
capital of Acarnania and �tolia, while that town was besieged by
a Turkish army; and the name of Marco Boz-zar'is, the commander
of the garrison, has ever since been classed with that of Leonidas
and other heroes of ancient Greece who fell in the moment of
victory. In his Crescent and the Cross; or, Romance and Realities
of Eastern Travel, the English author WARBURTON thus tells the
story of the well-known deed that saved Missolonghi to the Greeks
and hastened the delivery of their country:
"When Missolonghi was beleaguered by the Turkish forces, Marco
Bozzaris commanded a garrison of about twelve hundred men, who
had barely fortifications enough to form breastworks. Intelligence
reached him that an Egyptian army was about to form a junction
with the formidable besieging host. A parade was ordered of the
garrison, 'faint and few, but fearless still.' Bozzaris told
them of the destruction that impended over Missolonghi, proposed
a sortie, and announced that it should consist only of volunteers.
Volunteers! The whole garrison stepped forward as one man, and
demanded the post of honor and of death. 'I will only take the
Thermopyl� number,' said their leader; and he selected the three
hundred from his true and trusty Suliotes. In the dead of night
this devoted band marched out in six divisions, which were placed,
in profound silence, around the Turkish camp. Their orders were
simply, 'When you hear my bugle blow seek me in the pasha's tent.'
"Marco Bozzaris, disguised as an Albanian bearing dispatches
to the pasha from the Egyptian army, passed unquestioned through
the Turkish camp, and was only arrested by the sentinels around
the pasha's tent, who informed him that he must wait till morning.
Then wildly through the stillness of the night that bugle blew;
faithfully it was echoed from without; and the war-cry of the
avenging Greek broke upon the Moslem's ear. From every side that
terrible storm seemed to break at once; shrieks of agony and
terror swelled the tumult. The Turks fled in all directions,
and the Grecian leader was soon surrounded by his comrades. Struck
to the ground by a musket-ball, he had himself raised on the
shoulders of two Greeks; and, thus supported, he pressed on the
flying enemy. Another bullet pierced his brain in the hour of
his triumph, and he was borne dead from the field of his glory."
But Missolonghi was saved, and under Constantine and Noto Bozzaris,
brothers of the dead hero, it withstood repeated assaults of
the Turks, until, in 1826, after having been besieged for over
a year by a very large naval and military force, it was finally
taken. Those left of the small garrison who were able to fight,
placing the women in the center, sallied forth at midnight of
the 22d of April, and cut their way through the Turkish camp;
while those who were too feeble to attempt an escape assembled
in a large mill that was used as a powder-magazine, and blew
themselves and many of the incoming Turks to atoms.
Some fifteen years after the death of Marco Bozzaris, the American
traveller and author, Mr. John L. Stephens, visited Greece, and,
at Missolonghi, was presented to Constantine Bozzaris and the
widow and children of his deceased brother. In the account which
the author gives of this interview, in his Incidents of Travel
in Greece, he describes Constantine Bozzaris, then a colonel
in the service of King Otho, as a man of about fifty years of
age, of middle height and spare build, who, immediately after
the formal introduction, expressed his gratitude as a Greek for
the services rendered his country by America; and added, "with
sparkling eye and flushed cheek, that when the Greek revolutionary
flag sailed into the port of Napoli di Romania, among hundreds
of vessels of all nations, an American captain was the first
to recognize and salute it." Mr. Stephens thus describes the
widow of the Greek hero: "She was under forty, tall and stately
in person, and habited in deep black. She looked the widow of
a hero; as one worthy of those Grecian mothers who gave their
hair for bow-strings and their girdles for sword-belts, and,
while their heartstrings were cracking, sent their husbands to
fight and perish for their country. Perhaps it was she who led
Marco Bozzaris from the wild guerilla warfare in which he had
passed his early life, and fired him with the high and holy
ambition of freeing his country. I am certain that no man could
look her in the face without finding his wavering purposes fixed,
and without treading more firmly in the path of high and honorable
Mr. Stephens closes the account of his interview with the widow
and family as follows: "At parting I told them that the name of
Marco Bozzaris was as familiar in America as that of a hero of
our own Revolution, and that it had been hallowed by the
inspiration of an American poet. I added that, if it would not
be unacceptable, on my return to my native country I would send
the tribute referred to, as an evidence of the feeling existing
in America toward the memory of Marco Bozzaris." The promised
tribute was the following Beautiful and stirring poem by
At midnight, in his guarded tent,
The Turk was dreaming of the hour
When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent,
Should tremble at his power:
In dreams, through camp and court, he bore
The trophies of a conqueror;
In dreams his song of triumph heard;
Then wore his monarch's signet-ring;
Then pressed that monarch's throne--a king;
As wild his thoughts, and gay of wing,
As Eden's garden-bird.
At midnight, in the forest shades,
Bozzaris ranged his Suliote band,
True as the steel of their tried blades,
Heroes in heart and hand.
There had the Persian's thousands stood,
There had the glad earth drunk their blood
On old Plat�a's day;
And now there breathed that haunted air
The sons of sires who conquered there,
With arm to strike, and soul to dare,
As quick, as far as they.
An hour passed on--the Turk awoke;
That bright dream was his last;
He woke to hear his sentries shriek
"To arms! they come! the Greek! the Greek!"
He woke, to die 'mid flame and smoke,
And shout, and groan, and sabre-stroke,
And death-shots falling thick and fast
As lightnings from the mountain-cloud,
And heard, with voice as trumpet loud,
Bozzaris cheer his band:
"Strike! till the last armed foe expires;
Strike! for your altars and your fires;
Strike! for the green graves of your sires,
God, and your native land!"
They fought like brave men, long and well;
They piled that ground with Moslem slain;
They conquered; but Bozzaris fell,
Bleeding at every vein.
His few surviving comrades saw
His smile when rang their proud hurrah,
And the red field was won,
Then saw in death his eyelids close,
Calmly as to a night's repose--
Like flowers at set of sun.
Come to the bridal chamber, Death!
Come to the mother, when she feels,
For the first time, her first-born's breath;
Come when the blessed seals
That close the pestilence are broke,
And crowded cities wail its stroke;
Come in consumption's ghastly form,
The earthquake shock, the ocean storm;
Come when the heart beats high and warm
With banquet song, and dance, and wine;
And thou art terrible: the tear,
The groan, the knell, the pall, the bier,
And all we know, or dream, or fear
Of agony, are thine.
But to the hero, when his sword
Has won the battle for the free,
Thy voice sounds like a prophet's word,
And in its hollow tones are heard
Thanks of millions yet to be.
Come, when his task of fame is wrought;
Come, with her laurel-leaf, blood-bought;
Come, in her crowning hour--and then
Thy sunken eye's unearthly light
To him is welcome as the sight
Of sky and stars to prisoned men;
Thy grasp is welcome as the hand
Of brother in a foreign land;
Thy summons welcome as the cry
That told the Indian isles were nigh
To the world-seeking Genoese,
When the land-wind, from woods of palm,
And orange-groves, and fields of balm,
Blew o'er the Haytien seas.
Bozzaris! with the storied brave
Greece nurtured in her glory's time,
Rest thee--there is no prouder grave,
Even in her own proud clime.
She wore no funeral weeds for thee,
Nor bade the dark hearse wave its plume,
Like torn branch from death's leafless tree,
In sorrow's pomp and pageantry,
The heartless luxury of the tomb;
But she remembers thee as one
Long loved, and for a season gone:
For thee her poet's lyre is wreathed,
Her marble wrought, her music breathed;
For thee she rings the birthday bells;
Of thee her babes' first lisping tells;
For thine her evening prayer is said
At palace couch and cottage bed;
Her soldier, closing with the foe,
Gives for thy sake a deadlier blow;
His plighted maiden, when she fears
For him, the joy of her young years,
Thinks of thy fate and checks her tears.
And she, the mother of thy boys,
Though in her eye and faded cheek
Is read the grief she will not speak,
The memory of her buried joys,
And even she who gave thee birth,
Will, by their pilgrim-circled hearth,
Talk of thy doom without a sigh:
For thou art Freedom's now, and Fame's--
One of the few, the immortal names
That were not born to die!
About the time of the exploit of Bozzaris, Lord Byron arrived
in Greece, to take an active part in aid of Greek independence,
and proceeded to Missolonghi in January, 1824. No warmer friend
of the Greeks than Byron ever lived; but while he sympathized
with, and was anxious to aid in every way possible, those who,
in his own words, "suffered all the moral and physical ills that
could afflict humanity," it was evidently his honest belief that
the only salvation for Greece lay in her becoming a British
dependency. In his notes to Childe Harold, penned before the
revolution broke out, but while all Greece was ablaze with the
desire for liberty, he wrote as follows: "The Greeks will never
be independent; they will never be sovereigns, as heretofore,
and God forbid they ever should! but they may be subjects without
being slaves. Our colonies are not independent, but they are
free and industrious, and such may Greece be hereafter." These
words show that he considered Greece incapable of self-government,
should she ever regain her liberty; and he therefore deprecated
a return to her ancient sovereignty. That this was his view,
and that he subsequently designed to give it effect in his own
person, we are assured from the well-founded belief, derived
from his own declarations, that when he joined the Greek cause
he had a mind to place himself at its head, hoping and perhaps
believing that he might become King of Hellas, under the protection
of Great Britain. But whatever his plans may have been, they were
cut short by his death, at Missolonghi, on the 19th of April
following his arrival there.
INTERFERENCE OF THE GREAT POWERS.
In the campaign of 1824, while the Greeks lost Candia and the
strongly fortified rocky isle of Ip'sara, a Turkish fleet was
repulsed off Samos, and a large Egyptian fleet, sent to attack
the Morea, was frustrated in all its designs. The campaign of
1825, however, was opened by the landing, in the Morea, of a
large Egyptian army, under Ibrahim P�sha, son of the Viceroy
of Egypt. Navar�'no soon fell into his power; and at the time
of the fall of Missolonghi, in the following year, be was in
possession of most of southern Greece, and many of the islands
of the Archipelago. The foundation of an Egyptian military and
slave-holding state now seemed to be laid in Europe; and this
danger, combined with the noble defence and sufferings at
Missolonghi and elsewhere, attracted the serious attention of
the European governments and people; numerous philanthropic
societies were formed to aid the Greeks, and finally three of
the great European powers were moved to interfere in their behalf.
On the 6th of July, 1827, a treaty was concluded at London between
England, Russia, and France, stipulating that the Greeks should
govern themselves, but that they should pay tribute to the Porte.
To enforce this treaty a combined English, French, and Russian
squadron sailed to the Grecian Archipelago; but the Turkish Sultan
haughtily rejected the intervention of the three powers, and
the troops of Ibrahim Pasha continued their devastations in the
Morea. On the 20th of October the allied squadron, under the
command of the English admiral, Edward Codrington, entered the
harbor of Navarino, where the Turkish-Egyptian fleet lay at anchor;
and a sanguinary naval battle followed, in which the allies nearly
destroyed the fleet of the enemy. Although this action was spoken
of by the British government as an "untoward event," Admiral
Codrington was rewarded both by England and Russia; and the poet
CAMPBELL, in the following lines on the battle, naturally praises
him for planning and striking this decisive blow for Grecian liberty:
The Battle of Nava'rino.
Hearts of Oak, that have bravely delivered the brave,
And uplifted old Greece from the brink of the grave!
'Twas the helpless to help, and the hopeless to save,
That your thunderbolts swept o'er the brine;
And as long as yon sun shall look down on the wave
The light of your glory shall shine.
For the guerdon ye sought with your bloodshed and toil,
Was it slaves, or dominion, or rapine, or spoil?
No! your lofty emprise was to fetter and foil
The uprooter of Greece's domain,
When he tore the last remnant of food from her soil,
Till her famished sank pale as the slain!
Yet, Navar�'no's heroes! does Christendom breed
The base hearts that will question the fame of your deed?
Are they men?--let ineffable scorn be their meed,
And oblivion shadow their graves!
Are they women?--to Turkish s�rails let them speed,
And be mothers of Mussulmen slaves!
Abettors of massacre! dare ye deplore
That the death-shriek is silenced on Hellas' shore?
That the mother aghast sees her offspring no more
By the hand of Infanticide grasped?
And that stretched on yon billows distained by their gore
Missolonghi's assassins have gasped?
Prouder scene never hallowed war's pomp to the mind
Than when Christendom's pennons wooed social the wind,
And the flower of her brave for the combat combined--
Their watchword, humanity's vow:
Not a sea-boy that fought in that cause but mankind
Owes a garland to bon or his brow!
No grudge, by our side, that to conquer or fall
Came the hardy, rude Russ, and the high-mettled Gaul:
For whose was the genius that planned, at its call,
When the whirlwind of battle should roll?
All were brave! but the star of success over all
Was the light of our Codrington's soul.
That star of thy day-spring, regenerate Greek!
Dimmed the Saracen's moon, and struck pallid his cheek:
In its fast flushing morning thy Muses shall speak,
When their love and their lutes they reclaim;
And the first of their songs from Parnassus's peak
Shall be "Glory to Codrington's name!"
The result of the conflict at Navarino so enraged the Turks that
they stopped all communication with the allied powers, and prepared
for war. In the following year (1828) France and England sent
an army to the Morea: Russia declared war for violations of
treaties, and depredations upon her commerce; and on the 7th of
May a Russian army of one hundred and fifteen thousand men, under
Count Witt'genstein, crossed the Pruth, and by the 2d of July
had taken seven fortresses from the Turks. In August a convention
was concluded with Ibrahim P�sha, who agreed to evacuate the
Morea, and set his Greek prisoners at liberty. In the mean time
the Greeks continued the war, drove the Turks from the country
north of the Corinthian Gulf, and fitted out numerous privateers
to prey upon the commerce of their enemy. In January, 1829, the
Sultan received a protocol from the three allied powers, declaring
that they took the Morea and the Cyc'lades under their protection,
and that the entry of any military force into Greece would be
regarded as an attack upon themselves. The danger of open war
with France and England, as well as the successes and alarming
advances of the Russians, now commanded by Marshal Die'bitsch,
who had meantime taken Adrianople, within one hundred and thirty
miles of the Turkish capital, induced the Sultan to listen to
overtures of peace; and on the 14th of September "the peace of
Adrianople" was signed by Turkey and Russia, by which the former
recognized the independence of Greece.
* * * * *
VI. GREECE UNDER A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY.
Though freed from her Turkish oppressors, Greece was severely
agitated by domestic discontents, jealousies, and even manifest
turbulence. Count C�'po d'Is'tria, a Greek in the service of
Russia, who had been chosen, in 1828, president of the provisional
government, aroused suspicions that he designed to establish a
despotism in his own person, and he was assassinated in 1831.
A period of anarchy followed. The great powers had previously
determined to erect Greece into a monarchy, and had first offered
the crown to Prince Leopold, afterward King of Belgium, who, having
accepted the offer, soon after declined it on account of the
unwillingness of the Greeks to receive him, and their
dissatisfaction with the territorial boundaries prescribed for
them. Finally, the boundaries of the kingdom having been more
satisfactorily determined by a treaty between Turkey and the
powers in 1832, the crown was conferred on Otho, a Bavarian
prince, who arrived at Nauplia, the then capital of Greece, in
1833. Athens became the seat of government in 1835. Says a writer
in the British Quarterly, "The Greeks neither elected their own
sovereign nor chose their national polity. In a spirit of generous
confidence they allowed the three protecting powers to name a
king for them, and the powers rewarded them by making the worst
selection they could. They gave the Greeks a boy of seventeen,
with neither a character to form nor an intellect to develop."
The treaty by which Otho was placed on the throne made no provision
for a constitution, but one was expected; and, after ten years
of oppressive subjection by the king and his Bavarian minions,
both the people and a revolted soldiery surrounded the palace,
and demanded a constitution. The king acquiesced, a national
assembly was held, and a constitution was framed which received
the king's approval in March, 1844. In this bloodless revolution
we have an instance both of the determination, and peaceable,
orderly, and well-disposed tendencies of the Greek people. An
eye-witness of the scene has thus described it:
"I well recollect the uprising of 1843. Exasperated by the
miserable rule of Otho, a plot was hatched to wrench a constitution
from him, and when everything was ripe the Athenians arose. At
midnight the hoofs of horses were heard clanging on the pavements,
and the flash of torches gleamed in the streets, as the populace
and military hurried toward the palace; and when the amber-colored
dawn lighted the Acropolis and the plain of Athens, the king
found himself surrounded by his happy subjects, and discovered
two field-pieces pointing into the entrance of the royal residence.
A constitution was demanded in firm but respectful terms--it
being suggested at the same time that, if the request were not
granted by four o'clock in the afternoon, fire would be opened
on the palace. In the mean while all Athens was gathered in the
open space around the palace, chatting, cracking jokes, taking
snuff, and smoking, as if they had assembled to witness a show
or hear the reading of a will. Not a shot was fired; no violence
was offered or received; and precisely as the limiting hour
arrived, the obstinate king succumbed to his besiegers, and the
multitude quietly dispersed to their homes." [Footnote: B. G. W.
Benjamin, in "The Turk and the Greek."]
The Constitution which the Greeks secured contained no real
guarantee for the legislative rights of the people, and the minor
benefits it gave them were ignored by the government. A continuance
of the severe contests between the national party and foreign
intriguers materially interfered with the prosperity of the
country. Other events, also, now occurred to disturb it. In 1847
a diplomatic difficulty with Turkey, and, in 1848, a difference
with England, that arose from various claims of English subjects,
and that continued for several years, assumed threatening
proportions, and were only terminated by the submission of Greece
to the demands made upon her. When the Crimean war broke out,
Greece took a decided stand in favor of Russia; but England and
France soon compelled her to assume and maintain a strictly neutral
position. In 1859 the residents of the Ionian Islands, which were
under the protectorate of England, sought annexation to Greece,
and manifested their intentions in great popular demonstrations,
and even insurrections; but Greece, though sympathizing with them,
was too feeble to aid them, and no change was then made in their
THE DEPOSITION OF KING OTHO.
While these events were transpiring, the feeling of hostility
toward King Otho and the royal family was taking deeper root
with the Greek people, and open demonstrations of violence were
frequently made. The king promised more liberal measures of
government; but these fell short of the popular demand, and the
Greeks resolved to dethrone the dynasty. In October, 1862, after
several violent demonstrations elsewhere, matters culminated in
a successful revolution at Athens. A provisional government was
established by the leaders of the popular party, who decreed
the deposition of the king. Otho, who was absent from Athens
at the time, on a visit to Napoli, finding himself without a
throne did not return to Athens, but issued a proclamation taking
leave of Greece, and sailed for Germany in an English frigate.
He had occupied the throne just thirty years. MR. TUCKERMAN thus
describes him: "An honest-hearted man, but without intellectual
strength, dressed in the Greek fustinella, he endeavored to be
Greek in spirit; but under his braided jacket his heart beat to
foreign measures, and his ear inclined to foreign counsels. But
for the quicker-witted Amelia, the queen, his follies would have
worn out the patience of the people sooner than they did." The
condition of Greece under his government is thus described by
the writer in the British Quarterly, who wrote immediately after
the coup d'�tat: "To outward appearance, the Greece which the
Philhel'lenists of the days of Canning declared to be re-animated
and restored, has presented, during thirty years of settled
government, the aspect of a country corrupt, intriguing, venal,
and poor. The government has kept faith neither with its subjects
nor with its creditors; it has endeavored, by all means in its
power, to crush the constitutional liberties of its subjects;
and by refusing, throughout this period, to pay a single drachma
of its public debt, it has stamped itself either hopelessly
bankrupt or scandalously fraudulent. The people, meanwhile,
crushed by the incubus of a dishonest and extravagant foreign
rule, remain in nearly the situation they held on the first
establishment of their kingdom. In a word, Greece was thirty
years ago transferred from one despotism to another. The Bavarian
rule was no appreciable mitigation of the Turkish rule. If the
Christian monarch hated his Hellenic subjects less than the
Mussulman monarch, he was still more ignorant of the conditions
of prosperous government."
THE ACCESSION OF KING GEORGE.
If it has ever had an existence, Greek independence may be properly
dated from the deposition of the Bavarian dynasty. In December,
1862, a committee appointed by the provisional government ordered
the election of a new king. The national assembly shortly after
met at Athens, and, having first confirmed the deposition of
Otho, of those proposed as candidates for the vacant throne by
the European powers, Prince Alfred of England was elected by
an immense majority on the first ballot. This choice of a scion
of the freest and most stable of the constitutional monarchies
of Europe, was an expression of the desire and the resolve of
the Greek people to secure as full political and civil liberties
as was possible for them under a monarchical government. But
Prince Alfred was held ineligible in consequence of a clause
in the protocol of the protecting powers, which declared that
the government of Greece should not be confided to a prince chosen
from the reigning families of those states. Thereupon, in March,
1863, Prince George of Denmark, the present king, was unanimously
elected by the assembly, and his election was confirmed by the
great powers in the following July. There is every reason to
suppose that England assumed the honor of choosing Prince George.
On the withdrawal of Prince Alfred she expressed her willingness
to abandon her protectorate of the Ionian Islands, and cede them
to Greece, provided a king were chosen to whom the English
government could not object. The Ionian Islands were ceded to
Greece within two months after the accession of King George;
and Mr. Tuckerman relates that, "when Prince Christian, King
of Denmark, was in London, attending the marriage of his daughter
to the Prince of Wales, Lord John Russell discovered the second
son of Prince Christian in the uniform of a midshipman, and
suggested his name as the successor of Otho."
King George took the constitutional oath in October, 1863. In
1866 the revolution in Crete, or Candia, broke out, and, owing
to Greek sympathy with the insurrectionists, thousands of whom
found an asylum in Greece, grave complications arose between
Greece and Turkey, which were only settled by a conference of
the great powers in 1869. By the treaty with the Porte in 1832
the boundary line of Greece had been settled in an arbitrary
manner, by running it from the Gulf of Volo along the chain of
the Othrys Mountains to the Gulf of Arta--by which Greece was
deprived of the high fertile plains of Thessaly and Epirus, the
largest and richest of classical Greece. At the close of the late
Russian-Turkish war, however, the boundary line was changed by
the powers so as to include within the kingdom a large portion
of those ancient possessions; but this change occasioned serious
conflicts between the government and the people of the annexed
districts, and difficulties also arose with Turkey in consequence.
But these were finally settled by an amendment to the treaty,
passed in 1881."
With the exceptions just noted, no important events have disturbed
the peace of Greece since the accession of King George. In him
the country has a ruler of capacity, who is in great measure his
own adviser, and who comprehends the chief wish of his subjects,
"that Greece shall govern Greece." As MR. TUCKERMAN has said
of him, "Unlike his predecessor, he is a Greek by sympathy of
language and ideas. He feels the popular pulse and tries to
keep time with it, not more as a matter of policy than from
national sympathy; and his hands are comparatively free of the
impediment of those foreign ministerial counselors who, each
struggling for supremacy, united only in checking the political
advancement of the kingdom." It was no fault of the Greek people
that, under King Otho, Greece failed to make the internal
advancement that was expected of her on her escape from Moslem
tyranny. It was the fault of the government; for, when a better
government came, there was a corresponding change in the inner
life of the people; and at the present time, with the freest of
constitutional monarchies, and under the guidance of a ruler so
sympathetic, competent, and popular, redeemed Greece is making
rapid strides in intellectual and material progress. Of this
progress we have the following account by a prominent American
divine, a recent visitor to that country:
Progress in Modern Greece. [Footnote: Rev. Joseph Cook, in the
New York Independent, February, 1883.]
"You lean over the parapet of the Acropolis, on the side toward
the modern city, and look in vain for the print of that Venetian
leprous scandal and that Turkish hoof which for six hundred years
trod Greece into the slime. In the long bondage to the barbarian,
the Hellenic spirit was weakened, but not broken. The Greek, with
his fine texture, loathes the stolid, opaque temperament of
the polygamistic Turk. Intermarriages between the races are very
few. The Greek race is not extinct. In many rural populations
in Greece the modern Hellenic blood is as pure as the ancient.
Only Hellenic blood explains Hellenic countenances, yet easily
found; the Hellenic language, yet wonderfully incorrupt; and
the Hellenic spirit, omnipresent in liberated Greece. Fifty years
ago not a book could be bought at Athens. To-day one in eighteen
of the whole population of Greece is in school. In 1881 thirteen
very tall factory chimney-stacks could be counted in the Pir�'us,
not one of which was there in 1873. It is pathetic to find Greece
at last opening, on the Acropolis and in the heart of Athens,
national museums for the sacred remnants of her own ancient art,
which have been pillaged hitherto for the enrichment of the museums
of all Western Europe. During sixty years of independence the
Hellenic spirit has doubled the population of Greece, increased
her revenues five hundred per cent., extended telegraphic
communication over the kingdom, enlarged the fleet from four
hundred and forty to five thousand vessels, opened eight ports,
founded eleven new cities, restored forty ruined towns, changed
Athens from a hamlet of hovels to a city of seventy thousand
inhabitants, and planted there a royal palace, a legislative
chamber, ten type-foundries, forty printing establishments, twenty
newspapers, an astronomical observatory, and a university with
eighty professors and fifteen hundred students. After little
more than half a century of independence, the Hellenic spirit
devotes a larger percentage of public revenue to purposes of
instruction than France, Italy, England, Germany, or even the
United States. Modern Greece, sixty years ago a slave and a beggar,
to-day, by the confession of the most merciless statisticians,
stands at the head of the list of self-educated nations."
[Names in CAPITALS denote authors to whom prominent reference
is made, or from whom selections are taken.]
Aby'dos. Xerxes and his army at.
Acade'mla, or Ac-a-deme'. A public garden or grove, the resort
of the philosophers at Athens.
Acarna'ni-a, description of; aids Athens.
Ach�'ans, the; origin of.
Ach�'an League, the.
Ach�'us, son of Xuthus, and ancestor of the Ach�ans.
Acha'ia, description of. Name given to Greece by the Romans.
Achelo'us, the river, described.
Ach'eron, the river; described.
Acheru'sia (she-a), the lake, described.
Achil'les, accompanies expedition to Troy; contends with Agamemnon,
and withdrawn; refuses to enter the contest, puts his armor
on Patroclus, and the armor is lost; description of his new
armor; he enters the fight; encounters �neas, who escapes;
kills Hector; delivers the body to Priam; death of.
Acri'si-us (she-us), King of Argos.
Acrop'olis, the Athenian; seizure of, by Cylon; by Pisistratus;
by the Persians; famous structures of; its splendors in the
time of Pericles; injury to, inflicted by the Venetians.
Act�'on, the fable of.
Adme'tus, King of Pher�.
�gi'na, island of; war of, with Athens.
�'gos-pot'ami. Defeat of Athenians at.
�mo'nia, same as H�monia, an early name of Thessaly.
�ne'as, a Trojan hero, and subject of Virgil's �ne'id; wounded,
and put to flight by Diomed; fights for the body of Patroclus;
encounters Achilles, and is preserved by Neptune; account of
his escape from Troy.
�o'lians, the; colonies of.
�'olus, progenitor of the �olians.
�S'CHI-NES, the orator; prosecutes Demosthenes; exile of; oratory
of. Extracts from: The Death of Darius; Oration against Ctesiphon.
�S'CHYLUS, poet and tragedian. Life and works of. Extracts from:
Punishment of Prometheus; Retributive justice of the gods; The
taking of an oath; The name "Helen"; Beacon fires from Troy to
Argos; Battle of Salamis; Murder of Agamemnon.
�scula'pius, god of the healing art. Shrine of.
�'son, King of Iolcus.
�t'na, a city in Sicily, founded by Hiero.
Agamem'non, King of Mycen�; commands the expedition against Troy;
contends with Achilles; demands restoration of Helen; return
to Greece and is murdered.
Agamemnon, the. Extracts from.
Aganip'pe, fountain of.
Ag'athon, a tragedian.
Agesan'dros, a Rhodian sculptor.
Agesila'us, King of Sparta. Defeats the Persians at Sardis.
A'gis, King of Sparta.
Agrigen'tum, in Sicily.
A'jax. Goes with the Greeks to Troy; fights for the body of
Patroclus; his death.
AKENSIDE, MARK.--Character of Solon; of Pisistratus, and his
usurpation; Alcr�s; Anacreon; Melpomene.
ALAMANNI, LUIGI.--Flight of Xerxes.
ALC�'US, a lyric poet.--Life and writings of. Extracts from:
The spoils of war; Sappho.
ALC�'US, of Messene.--Epigrams of, on Philip V.
Alcibi'ades. Artifices of; retires to Sparta; intrigues of, against
Athens; is condemned to death, but escapes; is recalled to
Athens; is banished; death of.
Alcin'o-us, King. Gardens of.
"Al'ciphron, or the Minute Philosopher".
ALC'MAN, a lyric poet.--Life and writings of.
Alexander the Great. Quells revolt of the Grecian states; invades
Asia; defeats Darius; further conquests of; feast of, at
Persepolis; invades India; dies at Babylon; career, character,
and burial of; wars that followed his death.
Alexandria, in Egypt. Founded by Alexander.
Alex'is, a comic poet.
ALISON, ARCHIBALD.-Earthquake at Sparta, and Spartan heroism.
Alphe'us, river. Legends of.
A'mor, son of Venus, and god of love.
Amphic'tyon, Amphicty'ones, and Amphictyon'ic Council.
Amphip'olis, in Thrace.
Amphis'sa, town of.
Amy'cl�, town of.
ANAC'REON, a lyric poet.--Life and writings of.
An'akim, a giant of Palestine.
Anaxag'oras, the philosopher; attacks upon, at Athens; life,
works, and death of.
Anaximan'der, the philosopher.
Anaxim'enes, the philosopher.
Anchi'ses, father of �ne'as.
Androm'a-che, wife of Hector. Lamentation of, over Hector's body.
ANONYMOUS.--Tomb of Leonidas; Queen Archidamia.
Ant�'us, son of Neptune and Terra. Encounter with Hercules.
Antal'cidas, the peace of.
Anthe'la, village of.
ANTHON, CHARLES, LL.D.--Apelles and Protogenes.
Antig'onus, one of Alexander's generals; conquests and death of.
Antig'onus II., a king of Macedon.--War of, with Phyrrus; becomes
master of Greece, and death of.
Antil'ochus (in the Iliad).
Anti'ochus, King of Syria.
ANTIP'ATER, of Sidon.--Extracts from: The birthplace of Homer;
Sappho; Desolation of Corinth; The painting of Venus rising
from the sea.
Antip'ater, one of Alexander's generals. Is given command of
Macedon and Greece; suppresses a Spartan revolt; the Athenian
revolt; is given part of Macedonia and Greece; death of.
Antiph'anes, a comic poet.
An'tiphon, orator and rhetorician.
An'tium (an'she-um); a city of Italy.
An'tonines, the. Treatment of Greece by.
An'ytus, the accuser of Socrates.
Apel'les, an Ionian painter; anecdote of.
Aphrodi'te. (See Venus.)
Apollo, the god of archery, etc.; aids the Trojans; character
of; conflict of, with Python.
Apollo Bel've-dere, statue of.
Apollodo'rus, of Athens, a painter.
Apollo'nia, town in Illyria.
Ap'pius Claudius, the Roman consul.
Arach'ne, tower of.
Arbe'la. Battle of.
Arca'dia and Arcadians. Arcadians assist Messenia; assist Thebes
in war with Sparta.
Archidami'a, Queen of Sparta.
Archela'us, King of Macedon.
Archida'mus, King of Sparta.
Archil'ochus, lyric poet.
Archime'des, the Syracusan; Cicero visits the tomb of.
Architecture.--First period. Second period. Third period.
Ar'chons. Institution of, in Athens.
Areop'agus, or Hill of Mars. Court of; changes in power of.
A'res (same as Mars).
Arethu'sa, fountain of.
A're-us, King of Sparta.
Ar'go, the ship.
Argonau'tic expedition, the.
Ar'gos, city of.
Ari'on, the poet.
Aristi'des, the Athenian general and statesman. At Marathon;
rise of, in Athenian affairs; banishment of, and return to
fight at Salamis; leadership and death of.
Aristi'des, a painter.
Aristoc'rates, King of Arcadia.
Aristode'mus, one of the Heraclid�.
Aristogi'ton. Conspiracy of, against the Pisistratid�, and death
of; tribute to.
Aristom'enes, a Messenian leader.
ARISTOPH'ANES, the comic poet. Life and works of. Extracts from:
The Wasps; Cleon the Demagogue; The Clouds; The Birds.
Aristot'le, the philosopher. Life and works of.
ARNOLD, EDWIN.--The Academia.
Ar'ta, Gulf of.
Artaba'nus, uncle of Xerxes.
Artapher'nes, Persian governor of Lydia.
Ar'temis. (See Diana.)
Artemis'ia (she-a), Queen of Carin.
Artemis'ium. Naval conflict at.
Arts. (See Literature.)
As'cra. Birthplace of Hesiod.
A'sius (a'she-us). A marshy place near the river Ca-ys'ter,
in Asia Minor.
Aso'pus, the river, in Boeotia.
Aspa'sia (she-a). Attacks upon.
Asty'anax, Hector's son. Fate of.
A'te, goddess of revenge.
Athe'na. (See Minerva.)
Athenodo'rus, a Rhodian sculptor.
Athens, and the Athenians; founding of the city; early history
of; legislation of Draco and Solon; usurpation of Pisistratus;
birth of democracy at; battle of Marathon; affairs of, under
Aristides and Themistocles; war of, with �gina, and settlement
of; abandonment of city; successes of, at Artemisium and Salamis;
at Plat�a; empire of Athens; Athens rebuilt; affairs of, under
Cimon; at battle of Eurymedon; jealousy of Sparta against;
affairs of, under Pericles; changes in Constitution of; war
of, with Sparta; reverses of, in Egypt, decline of, and thirty
years' truce of, with Sparta; the "Age of Pericles"; war of,
with Sparta; the plague at; violates the Peace of Nicias;
Sicilian expedition of; war of, with Sparta, and revolt of
allies; reverses and humiliation of; fall of Athens; the rule
of the Tyrants; lead of, in intellectual progress; literature
and art of; adornment of; glory of; alliance of, with Sparta;
engages in the Sacred War; leads against Macedon; censured by
Demosthenes; allies of, defeated by Philip; first open rupture
with Macedon; alliance of, with Thebes, and defeat at Ch�ronea;
revolt of, against Alexander; captured by Antigonus; late
architecture, sculpture, and painting of; immortal influence
of; the Duchy of Athens; captured by Turks and Venetians;
revolution at, against Otho.
A'thos, Mount, in Macedonia.
Atos'sa, mother of Xerxes.
Atri'd�, the. A term meaning "sons of Atreus," and applied by
Homer to Agamemnon and Menelaus.
"Attic Wasp," the.
Augustus, the Roman emperor.
Au'lis, on the Euripus.
Auso'nian, or Au'sones. An ancient race of Italy.
Aver'nus, lake of.
Bacchus, god of vintage or wine; theatre of.
Bel'i-des, a surname given to daughters of Belus.
Beller'ophon, son of Glaucus.
BENJAMIN, S. G. W.--Revolution against Otho.
Bes'sus, satrap of Bactria.
Bias, one of the Seven Sages.
BLACKIE, J. STUART.--Value of Greek fables. Fancies of the Greek
mind. Legend of Pandora. Prometheus. Story of Tantalus. The
founding of Athens. Pythagoras. Legends of Marathon. Xerxes
and the battle of Salamis.
Boz-zar'ls, Marco.--Bravery and death of. Constantine Bozzaris,
and Noto Bozzaris.
Bras'idas, the Spartan.
Brazen Age, the.
British Quarterly Review.--The choice of Otho; and Greece under
Bria're-us (or Bri'a-reus).
BROUGHAM, LORD.--Demosthenes' Oration on the Crown. The style of
Demosthenes. The doctrine of Plato.
BROWNE, R. W.--Thucydides and Herodotus. Aristotle.
BULWER, EDW. LYTTON.--Merits of a "Tyranny." The battle of Plat�a,
and importance of. Xerxes at Sardis. Earthquake, and revolt
of Helots at Sparta. Changes in Athenian Constitution, Oratory
of Pericles. The Drama. Adornment of Athens.
BURLINGAME, EDW. L.--Roman treatment of Greece.
BYRON, LORD.--Dodona. Parnassus. Allusions to Attica. The
Corinthian rock. The Isles of Greece. The dead at Thermopyl�.
Xerxes at Salamis. Deathless renown of Greek heroes. The Athenian
prisoners at Syracuse. The revenge of Orestes. Alexander's
career. Siege and fall of Corinth. Greece under Moslem rule.
Views of Greek independence.
Cadmus, founder of Cadme'a.
Cadmea, citadel of Thebes.
Cal'amis, the sculptor.
Calaure'a, island of.
Callic'ra-tes, a Spartan soldier.
Callicrates, an architect.
Callicrat'i-das, a Spartan officer.
Callim'achus, the Pol'emarch.
CALLI'NUS, a lyric poet.--Writings of.
Calli'o-pe, the goddess of epic poetry.
CALLIS'TRATUS.--Tribute to Harmodius.
Calyp'so, the nymph, island of.
CAMPBELL, THOMAS.--Music of the Spartans. Song of the Greeks.
Battle of Navari'no.
Can'dla, island of (Crete).
Can'n�, in Apulia. Battle at.
CANNING, GEORGE.--The Slavery of Greece.
CANTON, WILLIAM.--Death of Anaxagoras.
Capo d'Istria, Count.
Capys, a Trojan.
Caspian Gates, the.
Cassan'der, son of Antipater.--Master of Greece and Macedon;
Cassan'dra, daughter of Priam.
Castalian Fount, the.
Cat'ana, in Sicily.
Ca-ys'ter, the river, in Asia Minor.
Cecro'plan hill (Acropolis).
Cephalo'nia, island of.
Cephis'sus, the river.
Ce'res, goddess of grain, etc.
Ch�rone'a, in Boeotia; battle of.
Chal'cis, in Euboea.
Cha'res, a Rhodian sculptor.
Cher'siphron, a Cretan architect. Story of.
Chersone'sus. the Thracian.
Chi'lo, one of the Seven Sages.
Chion'i-des, a comic poet.
Chi'os, island of.
Christianity in Greece.
Chro'nos, or Saturn.
Cicero, the Roman orator. Visits tomb of Archime'des.
Ci'mon (meaning Milti'a-des).
Cimon, son of Miltiades, and an Athenian general and statesman;
successes and rise of, at Athens; wins battle of Eurym'edon;
aids Sparta; the fall and banishment of; recall of, expedition
to Cyprus, and death of.
Ci'tium (she-um), in Cyprus.
Clazom'en�, on an island off the Dorian coast.
CLE-AN'THES.--Hymn to Jupiter.
Cle-ar'chus, a Spartan general.
Cleo-bu'lus, one of the Seven Sages.
Cle'on, the Athenian.--Causes the Mityleneans to be put to death;
conduct and character of, and attacks upon, by Aristoph'anes.
Cle'on of Lampsacus.
Cleon'ymus of Sparta.
Clis'thenes (eze), last despot of Si'�yon.
Clisthenes, founder of democracy at Athens; reforms of.
Clytemnes'tra, wife of Agamemnon.
Cocy'tus, the river.
Co'drus, early King of Athens.
COLERIDGE, HENRY N.--The poems of Homer.
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL T.--Pythagore'an influences.
COLLINS, MORTIMER.--Fable of Hercules and Ant�'us.
Colonies, the Greek. In Asia Minor; history of, in Magna Groeca,
etc.; in Sicily, Italy, Africa, etc.
Col'ophon, in Ionia.
Comedy. The Old; the New.
COOK, REV. JOSEPH.--Progress in Modern Greece.
Corcy'ra, or Corfu, island of.
Corinna, a Boeotian poetess.
Corinth, and the Corinthians; conquest of; despotisms of; war
of, with Corcyra; aids Syracuse; destruction of; capture of,
by the Turks.
Corinthian Gulf, the.
Corone'a, plains of. Athenian defeat at.
Coumour'gi, �l'i, the Turkish Grand Vizier. Successes of.
Councils, the National.
CRANCH, CHRISTOPHER P.--Temples at P�stum.
Cran'non, battle of.
Crat'erus, one of Alexander's generals.
Crati'nus, a comic poet.
Creation, the. Account of.
Cresphon'tes, of the Heraclid�.
Crete, island of; conquered by the Turks; revolution in.
Cris'sa, town of.
Cri'ti-as (cri'she-as), chief of the Thirty Tyrants.
Croe'sus, King of Lydia.
CROLY, GEORGE.--Pericles. Death of Pericles.
Croto'na, in Italy.
Crusaders, the. Courts of, in Greece.
Ctes'iphon, who proposed a crown for Demosthenes.
Cu'm�, in Italy.
Cum�'an Sibyl, the. Myth of.
CURTIUS, ERNST.--The Oration of Pericles. Retreat of the Ten
Thousand. Pelopidas and Epaminondas.
Cyc'la-des, the (islands).
Cyc'lic poets, the.
Cy'clops, or Cyclo'pes, the.
Cy'lon, the Athenian.
Cynoceph'al�, In Thessaly. Battle of.
Cyprian queen (Venus).
Cyprus, Island of.
Cyrena'ica, colony of.
Cy-re'ne, colony of.
Cyrus the Elder. Conquers Lydia.
Cyrus the Younger.
Cys'icus, Island of. Victory of Alcibiades at.
Cyth'era, island of.
Cyther�'a, name given to Venus.
Damon and Pythias.
Dan'a-�, Lamentation of.
Dan'a-us, founder of Argos.
Dar'danus, son of Jupiter and Electra.
Dari'us I. (Hystas'pes), King of Persia; dominion of; he suppresses
the Ionic revolt; invades Greece; death of.
Darius III., King of Persia. Defeated at Issus, and at Arbe'la;
Flight and death of.
De-iph'obus, a Trojan hero.
De'lium, in Boeotia. Battle of.
Del'phi, or Delphos. City, temple, and oracle of.
De'los, island of; Confederacy of States at.
Deme'ter. (See Ceres.)
Deme'trius, son of Antigonus. Seizes the throne of Macedon.
Demos'the-nes, the Athenian general. Captures Pylus; defeat and
death of, at Syracuse.
DEMOS'THE'NES, the orator; pious fraud of; measures against, at
Athens, and attack upon, by �schines; death of; oratory
of.--Extracts from: The First Philippic. Oration on the Crown.
Deuca'lion, son of Prometheus. Deluge of.
Diana, or Ar'temis, temple to, at Ephesus.
Di'o-cles, of Syracuse.
Diodo'rus, the historian.
Diog'enes, the Cretan.
Di'omed, a Greek hero in the Trojan war; valor of; fate of.
Di'on, of Syracuse.
Dionysian Festivals, the.
Dionysius of Col'ophon, a painter.
Dionysius the Elder, of Syracuse.
Dionysius the Younger, of Syracuse.
Dionysius, the Roman historian.
Diopl'thes, the general.
Dipoe'nus, the sculptor.
Dis, a name given to Pluto.
Dodo'na, city and temple of.
Do'rians, the, migrations and colonies of.
Do'rus, progenitor of the Dorians.
Dra'co, the Athenian legislator.
Drama, the. Before Peloponnesian wars; characterization of;
influence of; the drama after Peloponnesian war.
Dry'ads, or Dry'a-des, the. Wood-nymph.
DRYDEN, JOHN.--Alexander's feast at Persep'olis.
Edinburgh Review. Courts of Crusaders.
Eges'ta, in Sicily.
E'lea, in Lucania. Eleatic philosophy.
Eleu'sis, and the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Eleu'therre, in Attica.
E'lis and E'leans.
Elo'ra, temple of. Elora is a town in south-western Hindostan,
noted for its splendid cave-temples, cut from a hill of red
granite, black basalt, and quartz rock. Of these, that called
"Paradise," to which reference is here made, is 100 feet high,
401 feet deep, and 185 feet in greatest breadth. It is "a
perfect pantheon of the gods of India."
Ema'thia, or Macedon.
En'nius. The Fate of Ajax.
Eny'o, a war-goddess.
E'os, The same as Aurora, a term applied to the eastern parts
of the world.
Epaminon'das, the Theban. Character of, and his successes against
Epicu'rus, Life and works of.
Epidau'rus, in Argolis.
Erin'nys. (See Furies.)
Euboe'a, island of.
Eu'menes, Alexander's general.
Euphra'nor, a sculptor.
Eu'polis, a comic poet.
Eupom'pus, a Si�yonian painter.
EURIP'IDES. Life and works of. Extracts from: The Greek Armament.
Alcestis preparing for death.
Euri'pus, or Euboean Sea.
Eurybi'ades, a Spartan general.
Eurym'edon, in Pamphylia.
Farnese Bull, the. Sculpture of.
FELTON, C. C., D.D.--Ionian language and culture, Unity of the
Iliad. Works of Hesiod. Christianity in Greece. The Duchy of
Athens. The Klephts.
Festivals, the Grecian.
FINLAY, GEORGE, LL.D.--The Revolt against Rome.
Flamin'ius, Titus, Roman consul.
Future State, the. Greek views of.
Gan-y-me'de, Jove's cup-bearer.
Gedro'sia (she-a), in Persia.
Ge'la, in Sicily.
Ge'lon, despot of Gela. Becomes despot of Syracuse; dynasty of,
George, Prince of Denmark. Is chosen King of Greece; progress
of Greece under.
Giants, the; battle with Jupiter.
GILLIES, JOHN, LL.D.--Memorial to Miltiades. Aristophanes and
Cleon. The works of Phidias.
Gladiator, the Dying.
GLADSTONE, WM. EWART.--The humanity of the gods.
Glau'cus, a Trojan hero.
Glaucus, a sculptor.
Gods, the. Personifications and deifications of; moral
characteristics of; deceptions of.
Golden Age, the.
Gor'gias, the Sophist.
Gorgo'pis, lake, near Corinth.
Goths, the. Overrun Greece.
Government, forms of, and changes in.
Grani'cus, the river. Battle at.
GROTE, GEORGE.--The Trojan war. The Cum�an Sibyl. Increase of
power among Sicilian Greeks. The Seven Sages. Lesson from the
fate of Miltiades. Transitions of tragedy. Aristophanes. The
Sophists and Socrates. Demosthenes' first Philippic. The
Influence of Phocion. Conquests of Alexander. The Oration on
Guiscard (ges-kar'), Robert. Conquests of.
Gylip'pus, a Spartan general.
Gyth'e-um (or Gy-the'-nm), port of Sparta.
Ha'drian, the Roman emperor.
H�'mus, mountain chain of.
Halicarnas'sus, in Caria.
HALLECK, FITZ-GREENE.--Marco Bozzaris.
Hamil'car, a Carthaginian general.
Hannibal, a Carthaginian general.
Harmo'dius, an Athenian.
Harpies, the. Winged monsters with female faces and the bodies,
claws, and wings of birds.
HAYGARTH, WILLIAM.--Acheron and Acherusia. Ancient Corinth.
Sparta's invincibility. Battle of Thermopyl�. Athens in time
of peace. Temple of Theseus. The Academia. Immortality of
He'be, goddess of youth.
Hecat�'us, the historian.
Hec'tor, eldest son of Priam, King of Troy; parting of, with
Androma-che; exploits of; encounters Achilles, is slain, and
his body given up to Priam; lamentation over, by Andromache
HEE'REN (ha'ren).--Authority of Homer. Freedom in colonies.
Character of a "tyranny".
He-ge'sias (she-as), the sculptor.
Helen of Troy. Abduction of; the name of; laments Hectors death;
supposed career of, after the Trojan war.
Hel'icon, Mount, in Boeotia.
Hel'las, or Greece; survival.
Helle'nes, and Hellen'ic (Hellen). Spirit of, in modern Greece.
He'lots, the. The revolt of.
HEMANS, FELICIA.--Mount Olympus, 2. Vale of Tempe, 3. City and
temple of Delphi, T. Mycen�. Spartan march to battle. Legend
of Marathon. The Parthenon. The Turkish invasion.
Heph�s'tus, or Vulcan, M.
He'ra. (See Juno.)
Her-a-cli'd�, the return of the.
Heracli'tus, the philosopher.
Hercules, frees Prometheus; twelve labors, &c., of; fable of;
encounter of, with Ant�'ns; sails with Argonautic expedition;
legends of, at Marathon; statue of.
Hermes. (See Mercury.)
HEROD'OTUS, the historian. Life and writings of; compared with
Thucydides.--Extracts from: Xerxes at Abydos. Introduction to
Heroic Age, the. Some events of; arts and civilization in.
Hertha, goddess of the earth.
HE'SI-OD. Life and works of.--Extracts from: Battle of the Giants.
Origin of Evil, etc. The justice of the gods. Winter.
Hi'ero I. Despot of Gela; becomes despot of Syracuse.
Hiero II. Despot of Syracuse.
Him'era, in Sicily.
Hip'pias, son and successor of Pisistratus. Is driven from Athens;
leads the Persians against Greece.
Hippocre'ne (or crene' in poetry), fountain of.
Hippopla'�ia (also Hypopla'kia). Same as The'be, in Mysia, and
so called because supposed to lie at the foot of or under Mount
History. To close of Peloponnesian wars; subsequent period of.
HOLLAND. J. G.-The La-oc'o-on.
HOMER. Life and works of.--Extracts from: The gardens of Alcin'o-us,
Prayer to the gods. The taking of an oath. The Future State.
The descent of Orpheus. The Elysium. Punishment of Ate. Ulysses
and Thersites. Parting of Hector and Andromache. Death of
Patroclus. The shield of Achilles. Death of Hector. Priam begging
for Hector's body. Lamentation of Andromache; of Helen. Artifice
of Ulysses. The Raft of Ulysses. Similes of Homer. Jupiter
grants the request of Thetis.
HORACE.--Description of Pindar. Greece the conqueror of Rome.
Horolo'gium, the, at Athens.
HOUGHTON, LORD.--The Cyclopean walls.
HUME, DAVID.--The style of Demosthenes.
Huns, the. Overrun Greece.
Hy'las, legend of.
Hype'ria's Spring, in Thessaly.
Ib'rahim P�'sha (or pa-sh�').
Ica'ria, island of.
Ictinus, the architect.
Idalian queen (same as Venus).
Il'i-um, or Troy. Grecian expedition against; the fate of; fall
of, announced to the Greeks; discoveries on site of.
Im'bros, island of.
In'achus, son of Oceanus.
In'arus, a Libyan prince.
Iol'cus, in Thessaly.
I'on, son of Xuthus.
ION, of Chios. The power or Sparta.
Io'nla, and Ionians; language and culture of. Colonies of.
Ionic Revolt, the.
I'os, island of.
Ip'sara, isle of.
I'ra, fortress of, in Messenia.
I'ris, the rainbow goddess.
Isag'oras, the Athenian.
Isles of Greece, the.
Isoc'ra-tes, an Athenian orator.
Is'sus, in Cilicia. Battle of.
Isthmian Games, the.
Italy, Greek colonies in.
Ithaca, island of.
Itho'me, fortress of.
Ixi'on. The punishment of.
Jove. (See Jupiter.)
Julian, the Roman emperor.
Juno, or Hera, temple of, at Samos; temple of, near Plat�a.
Jupiter, Jove, or Zeus. Court of; temple of, and games sacred
to; hymn to; divides dominion of the universe; statue of, at
Justin, the Latin historian.
JUVENAL.--Stories about Xerxes. Flight of Xerxes from Salamis.
KENDRICK, A. C., LL.D.--Plato and his writings.
La�-e-d�'mon, or Sparta.
L�vi'nus, M. Valerius.
Lam'achus, an Athenian general.
Lamp'sacus, on the Hellespont.
LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE.--Reconciliation of Helen and Menelaus.
LANG, A.--Venus visits Helen of Troy. Reconciliation of Helen
La-oc'o-on, a priest of Apollo. Statuary group of the Laocoon.
Lap'ith�, a people of Thessaly.
LAWRENCE, EUGENE.--The murder of Agamemnon. Herodotus. Menander.
Lebade'a, temple and oracle of.
LEGAR� (le-gre'), HUGH S.--Character of a Greek democracy. The
eloquence of �schines. The eloquence of Demosthenes.
Lem'nian (relating to Vulcan).
Lem'nos, island of.
Leon'idas, a Spartan king. Bravery and death of, at Thermopyl�;
the tomb of.
Les'bos, island of.
Leu'cas, or Leucadia.
Leu'ce, in the Euxine Sea.
Leuc'tra, in Boeotia. Battle of.
LIDDELL, HENRY G., D.D.--Legends of the Greeks. Literature and
the Arts. In the Ionian colonies; the poems of Homer. 1. Progress
of, before the Persian wars; poems of Hesiod; lyric poetry;
philosophy; early architecture; early sculpture. 2. Progress
of, from the Persian to close of Peloponnesian wars; lyric
poetry; the Drama-tragedy; old comedy; early history; philosophy;
sculpture and painting; architecture. 3. Progress of, after
Peloponnesian wars; the drama; oratory; philosophy; history;
architecture and sculpture; painting.
Livy, the Roman historian.
Lo'cris, and Locrians.
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL.--A Pythagorean fantasy.
L�B'KE, WILHELM.--Art at Athene. Phidias and his work. The Dying
LU'CAN.--The Delphic oracle. Alexander's career and character.
LUCRE'TIUS (she-us).--The plague at Athens. Epicurus.
Lyce'um, the, at Athens.
Lycur'gus, the Spartan law-giver; legislation of.
Lyric Poetry. Before the Persian wars; from Persian to close
of Peloponnesian wars.
Lysan'der, a Spartan general. Acts of.
Ly'si-as (she-as), an Athenian orator.
Lysic'rates, monument to.
Lysim'achus, Alexander's general.
Lysip'pus, of Sicyon. Works of.
Maca'ria, plain of.
MACAULAY, LORD.--Herodotus. Literature of Athens, and her immortal
Ma�'edon, or Ma�edo'nia. Invasion of, by the Persians; by Xerxes;
Athenian colonies in; supremacy of; sketch of; interference
of, in affairs of Greece; war of, with Greece; with Persia;
revolt of Sparta against; invasion of, by Celts, and war with
Pyrrhus; conquest of, by Rome.
Macis'tus, Mount, in Euboea, near Eretria.
M�-o'tis, same as Sea of Azof.
MAHAFFY, J. P.--The society of Olympus. Political life of the
Greeks. Domestic life in the Heroic Age. Hesiod's description
of the Styx. Archilochus. Stesich'orus. Barbarities in the
Peloponnesian wars. Simonides. �schylus. The "Alcestis" of
Euripides. Thucydides. The Sophists. Socrates. Late Greek
Mah'moud, the Sultan.
Mantine'a, in Arcadia.
Mar'athon, the plains of; battle of, and legends connected with.
Mardo'nius, Persian general. First invasion of Greece; his second
Invasion and defeat at Marathon; defeated at Plat�a, and is
Me'llan nymphs. They watched over gardens and flocks of sheep.
Me'los, island of.
Melpom'e-ne, inventress of tragedy.
Memno'nian Palace. So called because said to have been founded by
the father of Memnon.
MENAN'DER, the comic poet. Life and works of. Fragment from.
Men'tor, a friend of Ulysses.
Mercury, or Her'mes.
Messa'na, in Sicily.
Messa'pion, Mount, in Boeotia.
Messe'nia, and Messe'nians, wars of, with Sparta.
Messenian wars, the.
Mi'con, a painter.
Mile'tus, in Ionia.
Milti'a-des, the Athenian general, etc. Commands at Marathon;
disgrace and death of; lesson of.
MILTON, JOHN.--Cocytus and Acheron. Heroic times foretold. Xerxes
crosses the Hellespont. Reference to Alcestis. Socrates. Oratory.
Mi'mas, a mountain-range of Ionia.
Minerva, temple of; statue of, at Athens.
Mi'nos, Cretan law-giver.
Minot'ti. Story of.
Missolon'ghi. The sortie at.
MITCHELL, THOMAS.--The Old Comedy. Style of Plato. Xenophon.
MITFORD, WILLIAM.--�schylus's account of Salamis. Character of
Mnemos'y-ne, mother of the Nine Muses.
Mnes'icles, a sculptor.
Mnes'theus.--A great-grandson of Erechtheus, who deprived Theseus
of the throne of Athens, and led the Athenians in the Trojan war.
Monembas�'a. On the south-east coast of Laconia.
Morosi'ni, a Venetian admiral.
Mum'mius, a Roman consul.
MURE, WILLIAM.--The "Works and Days" of Hesiod. Alcman.
Muses, the Nine.
Mye'a-le. Defeat of Persians at.
My'ron, a painter.
Myr'tis, a poetess.
Na-i'a-des, or Nai'ads, the.
Nap'oli di Roma'nia.
Navar�'no; battle of.
Nax'os, in Sicily.
Ne-ap'olis, in Italy.
Ne'mea, city of.
Nem'esis, a female avenging deity.
Neptune or Posei'don; temple of.
Ner-e'i-des, or Ner'e-ids.
Nestor, a Greek hero and sage.
Ni�i-as (she-as), the Peace of.
Ni�i-as, the Athenian general.
Ni�i-as, a painter.
Ni'o-be, and her children.
Oaths, of the gods, etc.
O-ce-an'i-des, the.--Ocean-nymphs and sisters of the rivers;
supposed personifications of the various qualities and appearances
O-ce'anus, god of the ocean.
OEd'ipus Tyran'nus, the.
Olym'pia, in E'lis; statue of Jupiter at.
Olym'pian Jove. Temple of; statue of.
Olym'pus, Mount; society of.
Olyn'thus, in Macedonia.
Ores'tes, son of Agamemnon.
Or'pheus (pheus), the musician.
Orthag'oras of Sicyon.
Ortyg'ia, in Sicily.
Otho, King of Greece; revolution against and deposition of.
OV'ID.--Apollo. The Creation. Deluge of Deucalion. The Descent
of Orpheus. Apollo's Conflict with Python.
P�s'tum. Ruins of temples at.
Pagas�, Gulf of.
Palame'des, a Greek hero.
Pal'las (same as Minerva).
Pami'sus, the river.
Pam'philus, a painter.
Pan; legend of.--The god of shepherds, in form both man and beast,
having a horned head and the thighs, legs, and feet of a goat.
Pan'darus, a Trojan hero.
Pando'ra, legend of.
Paradise Lost, the.
Par'��, or Fates.
Paris, of Troy. Abducts Helen; combat of, with Menelaus; kills
Par'nes, mountains of.
Par'non, mountains of.
Pa'ros an island of the Cyclades group.
Parrha'sius (she-us). Anecdotes of.
Par'thenon, the; glories of; destruction of.
Pass�'rowitz, in Servia. The peace of. Concluded between Austria
And Venice on the one side, and Turkey on the other.
Patro'cius, a Greek hero.
Pausa'nias, a Spartan general. At Plat�a; treason, punishment,
and death of.
Pax'os, island of.
Pegasus, the winged horse.
Pelle'ne, or Cassandra, in Achaia.
Pelop'idas, the Theban.
Peloponnesian wars, the; the first war; the second war.
Penel'o-pe, wife of Odysseus.
Pene'us, the river.
Pentel'icus, or Mende'li, Mount.
Pen'theus, King of Thebes.
Perdic'cas, Alexander's general.
Perian'der, despot of Corinth; one of the Seven Sages.
Per'icles, the Athenian general, etc. Accedes to power in place
of Cimon; constitutional changes made by, at Athens; measures
of, for war with Sparta; defeat of, at Tanagra; recalls Cimon;
progress under his rule; attacks upon, at Athens; declares war
against Sparta; oration of; death and character of.
Persep'olis. Alexander's feast at.
Per'seus (or se'us).
Per'seus, King of Macedon.
Persian wars, the. Account of.
Phale'rum, bay of.
Phe'r�, in Thessaly.
Phid'ias, the sculptor; the work and masterpieces of.
PHILE'MON, the comic poet. Life and works or.
Philip of Macedon; interference of, in Grecian affairs; invades
Thessaly; attacks of Demosthenes against; captures Olynthus;
reveals his designs against Greece, and defeats Athens
and Thebes at Ch�ronea; is invested with supreme command, and
declares war against Persia; death of.
Philip V. of Macedon; defeat of, at Apollonia and Cynocephal�.
Phil'ocles, bravery of.
Philosophy. Before the Persian wars; to close of Peloponnesian
wars; subsequent to Peloponnesian wars.
Phleg'ethon, or Pyr-iphleg'ethon.
Pho'cion (she-on), Athenian statesman. Opposes the policy of
Pho'cis and Phocians, sacrilege of, and war with.
Phoe'bus, the sun-god (Apollo).
Phoe'nix, warrior and sage.
PHRYN'ICHUS. Tribute to Sophocles.
Phy'le. A fortress in a pass of Mount Parnes, north-west from
Athens. This was the point seized by Thrasybulus in the revolt
against the Thirty Tyrants.
Pi-er'i-des, name given to the Muses.
Pi'e-rus, or Pl-e'ri-a, Mount.
Pi'e-rus, King of Emathia.
PIN'DAR. Life and writings of. Extracts from: The Greek Elysium;
Christening of the Argo; Spartan music and poetry; Tribute to
Theron; Athenians at Artemisium; Threnos; Founding of �tna;
Hiero's victory at Cum�; Admonitions to Hiero.
Pin'dus, mountains of.
Pi'sa and Pisa'tans.
Pisis'tratus and the Pisistrat'id�; usurpation of Pisistratus;
death and character of; family of, driven from Athens.
Pit'tacus, one of the Seven Sages.
Plague, the, at Athens.
Plat�'a and the Plat�'ans; battle of Plat�a; results of; attack
on, by Thebans.
PLATO, the philosopher. Life and works of.
PLATO, the comic poet.--Tomb of Themistocles; Aristophanes.
PLINY.--Story of Parrhasius and Zeuxis.
PLUMPTRE, E. H., D.D.--Personal temperament of �schylus.
PLUTARCH.--Songs of the Spartans; Solon's efforts to recover
Salamis; Incident of Aristides's banishment; Artemisium;
Lysander and Phil'ocles.
Polyb'ius. Life and works of.
Pol'ybus, King of Corinth.
Polycle'tus, a sculptor.
Polyc'ra-tes, despot of Samoa.
Polydec'tes, a Spartan king.
Polydec'tes, King of Seri'phus.
Polydo'rus, a Rhodian sculptor.
Polygno'tus, of Thasos.
POPE, ALEXANDER.--The Pierian Spring; Tribute to Homer; Description
of Pindar; Aristotle.
Posei'don, (See Neptune.)
Potid�'a, revolt of.
Praxit'eles, an Athenian sculptor.
Priam, King of Troy.
Prie'ne, in Carla.
PRIOR, MATTHEW.--Description of Pindar.
Prod'icus, the Sophist.
Prome'theus. Legend of; Hesiod's tale of.
Prome'theus Bound, the.
Propyl�'a, at Athens.
Pros'erpine, daughter of Ceres.
Protag'oras, the Sophist.
Pro'teus (or te-us), a sea-deity.
Protog'enes, a Rhodian painter.
Ptol'emy Cerau'nus, of Macedon.
Ptol'emy Philadelphus, King of Egypt.
Ptol'emy So'ter, Alexander's general.
Pyd'na, in Macedonia. Battle of.
Py'lus, in Messenia.
Pyr'rha, wife of Deucalion.
Pyr'rhus, a son of Achilles.
Pyr'rhus, King of Epirus; war of, with Macedon; with Sparta;
Pythag'oras, the philosopher; doctrines of, etc..
Pythag'oras, a painter.
Pyth'ia, priestess of Apollo.
Py'thon; Apollo's conflict with.
Py'thon, an orator of Macedon.
Quintil'ian, the historian.
Rhadaman'thus, son of Jupiter and Europa.
Rhe'a, daughter of Coelus and Terra (Heaven and Earth).
Rhe'gium, in Magna Groecia.
RHI'GAS, CONSTANTINE. War song.
Rhodes, island of; sculptures of.
Rhoe'cus, a sculptor.
Roger, King of Sicily.
Rome and the Romans; called into Sicily, and become masters of
the island; defeat of, at Cann�, and victory of, at Cynocephal�;
become masters of Greece and Macedon; their administration
RUSKIN, JOHN.--The "Clouds" of Aristophanes.
Sacred War, the.
Sages, the Seven.
Sal'amis, island of; naval battle at.
Saler'no, bay of, in Italy.
Saloni'ca, once Thessaloni'ca.
Sa'mos, island of.
SAP'PHO (saf'fo), a poetess. Lire, writing, and characterization of.
Sar'dis, in Asia Minor.
Saron'ic Gulf (Thermaic).
Sarpe'don, a Trojan hero.
Sat'urn. (See Chro'nos.)
Sc�'an Gates, the, of Troy.
Scaman'der, river in Asia Minor.
Scaptes'y-le, in Thrace.
SCHILLER.--The building of Thebes; the poet's lament; wailing
of the Trojan women; Damon and Pythias--The Hostage; a visit
SCHLEGEL, A. W., von.--Character of the Agamemnon.
S�il'lus, In E'lis.
S�l'o, island of.--Massacre at.
Sco'pas, the sculptor.
Sculpture.--Before the Persian wars; from Persian to close of
Peloponnesian wars; subsequent to Peloponnesian wars.
S�yl'lis, a sculptor.
S�y'ros, Island of.
Seleu'cus, Alexander's general; the Seleucid�.
Seli'nus.--Ruins of temples at.
Seneca, Roman philosopher.
Seri'phus, island of.
Seven Chiefs against Thebes, the.
SEWELL, WILLIAM.--Anecdote of Chrys'ostom.
SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE.--The sufferings of Prometheus; an image of
Athens; a prophetic vision of the Greek Revolution.
Shield of Hercules, the.
Sicilian Expedition, the.
Sicily, Island of.--Colonies in; invasion of, by Carthaginians;
by the Athenians; affairs in the colonies under Hiero, Dionysius,
etc.; the Roman conquer.
Si'�y-on and Si�y-o'nians (sish'i-on); sculpture of; painting of.
Slle'nus, a demi-god. The nurse, preceptor, and attendant of
Bacchus, to whom Socrates was wont to compare himself.
SIM'MIAS.--Tribute to Sophocles.
Sim'o-is, a river of Troas.
Simon'ides of Amorgos.
SIMON'IDES OF CEOS.--Life and writings of. Extracts from: Epitaphs
on the fallen at Thermopyl�; battle of Eurym'edon; Lamentation
Slavonians, the.--Influences of.
SMITH, WILLIAM, LL.D.--Socrates. Aristotle.
SOCRATES; attack upon, by Aristophanes. Life and works of. Extracts
from: His Defence. Views of a Future State.
Solon, the Athenian law-giver.--Life and legislation of; capture
of Salamis by; his integrity; protests against acts of
Pisistratus; voluntary exile and death of; classed as one of
the Seven Sages. Extracts from: Ridicule to which his integrity
exposed him. Estimate of his own character and services.
SOPH'OCLES. Life and works of. Extracts from: The taking of an
oath. Chariot-race of Orestes. The OEdipus Tyrannus.
SOUTHEY, ROBERT.--The battle of Platoon.
Sparta and the Spartans; Sparta is assigned to sons of Aristodemus;
early history of; education and patriotism of; their poetry
and music; conquests by; colonize Tarentum; reject the demands
of Darius, but refuse to help Athens at Marathon; efforts of,
to unite states against Persia; in battle of Thermopyl�;
monuments and epitaphs to; in battle of Salamis; or Plat�a;
on coasts of Asia Minor; loses command in war against Persia;
earthquake at Sparta, and revolt of the Helots; accepts aid
from Athens; alliance of, with Athens, renounced, and war begun;
defeats Athens at Tanagra, and is defeated; truce of, with
Athens; begins Peloponnesian war; concludes the peace of Nicias;
war of, with Argives, and victory at Mantinea; aids Syracuse
against Athens; successes of, against Athens; occupies Athens,
and withdraws from Attica; supremacy of Sparta; her defeat
and humiliation by Thebes; engages in the Sacred War; revolt
of, against Macedon; war with Pyrrhus; with Antigonus.
Spor'a-des, the (islands).
Sta-gi'ra, in Macedonia.
Stati'ra, daughter of Darius,
STEPHENS, JOHN L--A visit to Missolonghi.
Stesich'orus, the poet.
STORY, WILLIAM W.--Chersiphron, and the Temple of Diana.
Stroph'a-des, the (islands).
Stry'mon, the river.
Styx. A celebrated torrent in Arcadia--now called "Black water"
from the dark color of the rocks over which it flows--from
which the fabulous river of the same name probably originated.
Su'da, in Achaia.
Su'sa, capital of Persia.
Susa'rion, a comic poet.
Syb'aris, in Italy; destroyed by Crotona.
Sylla, a Roman general.
SYMONDS, JOHN ADDINGTON.--The "Theogony" of Hesiod; Archilochus;
the ladies of Lesbos; Sappho and her poems; the era of Athenian
greatness; Pindar; Euripides; Menander.
Syracuse, in Sicily.--Founded by Corinthians; progress of, under
Gilon, and war with Carthage; destroys the Athenian expedition;
affairs of, under Hiero and succeeding rulers.
Syrts, two gulfs in Africa.
TALFOURD, THOMAS NOON.- Unity of the Iliad; Sophocles; the glory
Tan'agora, in Boeotia, battle of.
Tan'talus, the story of.
Taren'turn, in Italy.
Tar'tarus, the place of punishment.
Ta-yg'etus, mountain-range of.
TAYLOR, BAYARD.--Legend of Hylas.
Te'gea, in Arcadia.
Teg'y-ra, battle at.
Tem'enus, of the Heraclid�.
Tem'pe, Vale of.
Ten'edos, island of.
TENNENT, EMERSON.--Turkish oppression in Greece.
Ten Thousand Greeks, retreat of.
Te'os, in Ionia.
TERPAN'DER, the poet; Spartan valor and music.
Te'thys, wife of Ocean.
Tha'is, an Athenian beauty.
Tha'les, one of the Seven Sages; philosophy of.
Theag'enes, despot of Megara.
The'be, a city of Mysia.
Thebes, city of; Thebans at Thermopyl�; attack of Thebans on
Plat�a; sympathy of, with Athens; seizure of, by the Spartans;
rise and fall of Thebes; defeat of, at Charonea.
The'mis, goddess of justice, or law.
Themis'to-cles, Athenian general and statesman; at Marathon;
rise of, in Athenian affairs; character and acts of; at
Artemisium, and at Salamis; banishment, disgrace, and death
of; monuments and tributes to.
Theodo'rus, the sculptor.
THEOG'NIS, poet of Megara.--The Revolutions in Megara.
The'ra, island of.
Therma'ic Gulf (Saronic).
Thermop'yl�, pass of; battle at.
The'ron, ruler of Agrigentum.
Thersi'tes; a Greek warrior.
The'seus (or se-us), first king of Athens; temple to, at Athens;
legends of; temple of.
Thes'pi� and the Thespians.
Thes'salus, son of Pisistratus.
Thes'saly and the Thessa'lians.
The'tis, a sea-deity; "Thetis' son" (Achilles).
THIRLWALL, CONNOP, D.D.--The Trojan war. Want of political union
among the Greeks. Character of an ochlocracy. Effects of the
fall of oligarchy. Writings of Theognis. The rule of Pisistratus.
Reforms of Clisthenes. The "Theogony" of Hesiod. Progress of
Sculpture. Themistocles. Pericles. Pindar. The Greeks in the
Sacred War. Last struggles of Greece.
THOMSON, JAMES.--The Apollo-Belvedere. Sparta. Tribute to Solon.
Teachings or Pythagoras. Architecture. Aristides. Cimon. Socrates.
Architecture. Retreat of the Ten Thousand. Pelopidas and
Epaminondas. The Dying Gladiator. The La-oc'o-on. The painting
by Protog'enes at Rhodes.
Thrasybu'lus, an Athenian patriot.
Thrasybulus, despot of Syracuse.
THUCYD'IDES, the historian. Life and Works of. Extracts from:
Speech of Pericles for war; Funeral Oration of Pericles; Athenian
defeat at Syracuse.
Thu'rii, in Italy.
Timo'leon, a Corinthian.--Rebuilds Syracuse, and restores her
Tire'sias (shi-as), priest and prophet. (See OEdipus Tyrannus.)
Tir'yns, in Argolis.
Tissapher'nes, Persian satrap.
Tit'y-us, punishment of.
Tragedy.--At Athens; decline of.
Tra'jan, the Roman emperor.
Tripolit'za, modern capital of Arcadia.
Tri'ton. A sea-deity, half fish in form, the son and trumpeter
of Neptune. He blew through a shell to rouse or to allay the sea.
Trojan War, the.--Account of; consequences of.
Troy. (See Ilium.)
TUCKERMAN.--American sympathy with Greece. Character of Otho.
Of King George.
Turks, the; invade Greece; contests of, with the Venetians;
Siege and capture of Corinth by; final conquest of Greece;
Greek revolution against; compelled to evacuate Greece.
Tydl'des, a patronymic of Diomed.
TYLER, PROF. W. S.--The divine mission of Socrates.
TYMN�'US.--Spartan patriotic virtue.
Tyn'darus, King of Sparta.
Tyrant, or despot.--Definition of.
Tyrants, the Thirty. The Ten Tyrants.
Tyre, city of.
Ulys'ses, subject of the Odyssey; goes to Troy; rebukes Thersites;
advises construction of the wooden horse; wanderings of;
character of; raft of, described.
Ulys'ses, a Greek general.
U'ranus, or Heaven.
Venetians, the; contests of, with the Turks; capture the
Peloponnesus and Athens; evacuate Athens; abandon Greece.
Ve'nus, or Aphrodi'te, goddess of love; appears to Helen; statue
of; painting of, rising from the sea.
VIRGIL.--Landing of �neas. The taking of an oath. The fate of Troy.
The Cum�an Cave. The Eleusinian Mysteries.
Vo'lo, gulf of.
Vulcan, god of fire.
WARBURTON, ELIOT B. G.--The sortie at Missolonghi.
WEBSTER, DANIEL.--Appeal of, for sympathy with the Greeks.
WEYMAN, C. S.--Changes in statuary.
WILLIS, N. P.--Parrhasius and his captive.
WINTHROP, ROBERT C.--Visit of Cicero to tomb of Archimedes.
WOOLNER, THOMAS.--Venus risen from the sea.
WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM.--Fancies of the Greek mind. The joy of the
Greeks at the Isthmian games.
Works and Days, the.
Xan'thus, or the river Scamander.
Xenoph'anes, the philosopher.
Xen'ophon, the historian.--Leads the retreat of the Ten Thousand.
Life and works of.
Xerxes, King of Persia; prepares to invade Greece, and reviews
his troops at Abydos; stories of; bridges and crosses the